We have vast experience in managing domestic solid waste. For condition prevailing in Noida, we found that decentralized system will work best. The process consists of:
- COLLECTION- For a township like Noida, we found that domestic waste has to be collected on daily basis. The most suitable vehicle for collection of domestic waste is the pedal rickshaw. Each rickshaw can collect waste up to 200 households between 7a.m to 11a.m.
- TRANSPORTATION- The same rickshaw which is employed for collection can be utilized for transportation to the decentralized transit storage-cum segregation site. The waste collected should be suitably covered so that it does not spill on the road during transportation.
- TRANSIT STORAGE CUM SEGREGATION SITE- This structure has to be designed so that:
(a) It is not accessible to stray animals.
(b) It is not exposed to open air.
(c) It should not create unhygienic and insanitary conditions.
(d) There should be separate entrance for rickshaws which bring waste and vehicles which carry away segregated waste to composting site and land fill site.
NOTE: Waste should not be allowed to remain at this site and should be cleared on daily basis. The place should be washed and cleaned with disinfectant immediately after the waste has been removed.
- SEGREGATION- CEIS-N, recognizes the fact that segregating of waste is essential as the amount of waste being generated today is causing immense problems.
Therefore, it has now become absolutely essential to look for methods by which the garbage load on the landfill can be reduced. It can be safely concluded that Segregation of waste at source level seems to be the best. However in conditions existing in Noida, it has not been found to be feasible. Therefore Segregation has to be done at the Transit Storage Site.
A large portion of waste which is not biodegradable can be reused or recycled and the biodegradable part can be converted to compost leaving only a very small portion of the waste to be discarded in a sanitized landfill site.
Waste collectors have to play a special role int he segregation of waste as they are the focal point for recycling of waste. They segregate plastics,paper,bottles,and cans etc. and by scavenging the recyclable matter they contribute a lot towards waste management. They save the municipality a great deal of cost and time that would have been incurred in collecting and transporting of waste.
The reduction of waste sent to the landfill in turn also increases the life of the landfill.
In Indian households, it is a common practice to keep aside items such as old newspapers,used bottles,magazines,carry bags,old exercise books,oilcans, etc. that are not needed around the house to be sold to the kabadiwala.
- TRANSPORTATION AFTER SEGREGATION- The waste is segregated into three parts:
(1) Non-degradable waste such as plastic,paper,metals etc. This is easily transported by waste collectors to kabaris for recycling by the industry.
(2) Biodegradable waste which can be composted has to be transported by the municipality to the nearest compost site in covered vehicle.
(3) The remaining waste which cannot be recycled has to be transported by the municipality to the landfill site in covered vehicles.
NON-DEGRADABLE WASTE: As mentioned earlier, the recycling of non-degradable waste is being done very effectively by our waste collectors, kabaris and recycling industry.
BIO-DEGRADABLE WASTE: This part of waste is left unattended on the road as is being done at present attracts stray animals, flies and mosquitoes. This also gives out bad smell and toxic gases which can cause health problems. The best way to recycle this waste is through Vermi Composting.
- COMPOSTING- CEIS-N, has adopted the natural process of decomposition of organic(bio-degradable) waste that yields manure or compost, which is very rich in nutrients. Composting is a biological process in which micro-organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria, convert degradable organic waste into humus like substance. The finished product, which looks like soil, is high in carbon and nitrogen and is an excellent medium for growing plants.
The process of composting ensures the waste that is produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to rot. It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as nutrients. Apart from being clean,cheap, and safe, composting can significantly reduce the amount of disposable garbage.
The organic fertilizer can be used instead of chemical fertilizers and is better specially when used for vegetables. It increases the soil's ability to hold water and makes the soil easier to cultivate. It helped the soil retain more of the plant nutrients.
Benefits of Compost
1. It supplies part of the 16 essential elements needed by the plants.
2. It helps reduce the adverse effects of excessive alkalinity, acidity, or the excessive use of chemical fertilizer.
3. It makes soil easier to cultivate.
4. It helps keep the soil cool in summer and warm in winter.
5. It aids in preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil covered.
6. It helps in controlling the growth of weeds in the garden.
For Guidelines refer to Govt. of India,Min. of Environment Notification on Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 and Environment (Protection) Act,1986.